WHAT IS HYPERTHYROIDISM
Hyperthyroidism is condition in which an overactive thyroid is producing an excess amount of thyroid hormone that is circulating in blood.
Thyroid gland that is situated in the midline and base of the neck produces T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) that are essential for the hormony of various body functions.Thyroid Hormones govern the body’s chemical reaction and influence the growth of an individual.
- CAUSES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM:-
1.Grave’s disease-Also known as ‘Toxic diffuse goiter’.It is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system starts producing an antibody called as the thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin or TSI.These antibodies mimic the action of TSH and cause the thyroid to produce too much of thyroid hormones.It is hereditary in nature.
2.Thyroid nodules-Also known as Adenomas or Hot Nodules.These are lumps in the thyroid gland which are noncancerous.When these lumps become overactive they start producing too much thyroid hormones.
3.Thyroiditis-It can occur after a viral illness and this is commonly known as subacute thyroiditis.Gland leads to excess production of thyroid hormones leading to hyperthyroidism.
4.Overdose of thyroid hormones
5.Excessive iodine intake
6.High level of TSH-It can lead to excess stimulation of thyroid gland resulting in high level of thyroid hormones.
7.Drugs-Iodine containing drugs such as amiodarone,lithium may lead to hyperthyroid state.
- SYMPTOMS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM:-
- Weight loss despite of normal or increased appetite
- Heat intolerance
- Difficulty in breathing
- Increased bowel movements
- Light or absent menstrual periods
- Tremors of hands and fingers
- Excessive perspiration
- Fast heart rate
- Muscle weakness
- Warm moist skin
- DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM:-
1.Medical history and physical examination-To detect tremor in fingers while extend,overactive reflexes,eye changes etc.
2.Blood tests-To measure level of thyroxine and TSH in blood.
3.Radioactive iodine uptake test
- TREATMENT OF HYPERTHYROIDISM:-
1.Treating the symptoms-For this beta blockers like propranolol,atenolol,metoprolol are used.
2.Anti thyroid drugs like Methimazole,Propylthiouracil are used.
3.Radioactive iodine-Isotope iodine 131 is used.
4.Surgery(Thyroidectomy)-The goal is to remove thyroid tissue that are producing excess hormones.
It helps in controlling the symptoms while restoring the hormones level back to normal.It also helps to reduce the doses of conventional medication in the long run.